Effect of Electrolytic Water (Ionized Water) Intake on Lifespan of Autoimmune Disease Prone Mice

Research from Texas University

Recent studies on electrolyzed water indicate that anode or acidic water is most effective as disinfectants; whereas, reduced or alkaline water processed through cathode is used as safe drinking water. The present drinking water study was undertaken in two strains of autoimmune disease prone mice to establish the spontaneous disease process and longevity. Weanling MRL/lpr and NZBxNZW [B/W] F1 female mice were provided daily with (1) tap water [pH ~7.5, oxygen reduction potential (ORP)~600+] (2) electrolyzed water with pH of ~9.0 and ORP ~400- and (3) hyper-reduced water with pH~10.0 and ORP~600-. Mice were provided H2O and chow diet ad libitum and weekly body weights and spontaneous deaths were recorded. The mean survival data recorded as days for MRL/lpr mice [25 mice/group] is as follows: (1) tap water 235±25, (2) reduced water 287±40 and (3) hyper-reduced water 346±45 days [<0.05]. In the case of B/W mice [25 mice/group], (1) tap water 269±16, (2) reduced water 298±19 and (3) hyper-reduced 302±18 days. A significantly decreased (<0.05) serum lipid peroxides were observed in mice fed hyper-reduced H2O. Also, the source of water did not alter lymphocyte subsets or their response to mitogens. In summary, hyper-reduced water with pH~10.0 appears to inhibit autoimmune disease of MRL/lpr mice whereas only a modest increased lifespan was noted for B/W mice. The increased lifespan by electrolyzed H2O appears to be related to the changes in free radicals and antioxidant enzyme levels. [Supported in part by Zanix Co. and Mr. Waterman Co., Tokyo, Japan].

Water Electrolytic Reactions
Cathode Water
H2O —-> H+ + OH-

2H+ —-> 2e- —-> H+

20 ~ 30% increase of alkaline minerals in relation to the raw water. water is alkaline
high permeability
high solubility
high heat and electrical conductivity
Anode Water
H2O —-> H+ + OH-

4OH- — 4e- –> 2H2O + O2

20 ~ 30% increase of chlorine ions in relation to the raw water. water is acid
has a bleaching effect
has a disinfectant effect
has an astringent effect
Experimental Design
MRL/lpr NZB x NZW F1
Water Tap water (pH 7.5)
Reduced water (pH 9.0)
Hyper-reduced water (pH 10.0)
Measurements Survival
Immune parameters
Hydrogen peroxides
Daily Analysis of Drinking H2O Given to Mice
O2 content (%) Saturation Ratio (%) Dissolved O2 (mg/dl) Temp (^C)
Tap-Water 7.5 600+ 18 % 80 % 6.5 25.0
R-Water 9.0 400- 25 % 90 % 7.5 26.0
HR-Water 10.0 500- 25 % 90 % 7.5 26.5
Drinking Water on Lymphocyte Subsets
Treatment CD4+ CD8+ Ig+
B/W Tap-Water 29±1.7 12.7±2.7 53.5±4.8
R-Water 30.8±2.4 13.4±2.9 53.0±4.6
HR-Water 32.2±3.9 14.4±3.9 50.7±6.5
MRL/lpr Tap-Water 23.5±0.8 13.7±1.1 32.7±3.2
R-Water 27.9±1.4* 16.6±1.5 29.0±3.0
*(<0.05) HR-Water 30.7±3.7* 17.2±3.1 29.4±2.9
Effect of H2O on DNA Synthesis (CPM) in Spleen Cells of B/W Mice
Control (Media) Anti-CD3 (T cell) LPS (B cell)
Tap-Water 13359±685 25647±5602 112752±2576
R-Water 17005±1061 26368±6571 109859±3572
HR-Water 14431±2519 32566±5939 117219±5092





1. Life long intake of both reduced (pH 9.0) and hyper-reduced (pH 10.0) water caused no harm to mice compared to tap water.
2. Survival is increased significantly by hyper-reduced water in one strain (MRL/lpr).
3. Slight increased life span in the other strain (NZBxNZW F1).
3. Reduced and hyper-reduced water appears to increase T cell numbers, and decrease B cells.
4. Both reduced and hyper-reduced water appears to increase antioxidant mRNA levels.
5. New clinical and animal studies are needed to confirm above results.

About Bob McCauley

Bob McCauley, ND (Robert F., Jr.) was raised in Lansing, Michigan and attended Michigan State University (BA, 1980 in Journalism). He is a naturopathic doctor, Master Herbalist and a Certified Nutritional Consultant. He has traveled extensively, both domestically and abroad, visiting over 32 countries. He published Confessions of a Body Builder: Rejuvenating the Body with Spirulina, Chlorella, Raw Foods and Ionized Water (2000), Achieving Great Health (2005), The Miraculous Properties of Ionized Water, (2006) which is the only book on the market that exclusively addresses Ionized Water, Twelve (Fiction, 2007) and Honoring the Temple of God (2008). He considers himself a Naturalist, meaning he pursues health in the most natural way possible. He studies and promotes nature as the only way to true health. From 2002-2004 he hosted the radio program Achieving Great Health, which was heard by thousands of people each day. His guests included some of the most well-known and respected names in the natural health world. With the help of his father, Dr. Robert F. McCauley, Sr. (Doctorate in Environmental Engineering, MIT, 1953) they started Spartan Water Company in 1992, which sold vended water machines in supermarkets. Robert Jr. founded Spartan Enterprises, Inc. in 1993. He is a Certified Water Technician with the State of Michigan. He is also a Type II Public Water Supply Specialist and has the certifications of S-5 and D-5. The McCauley family has a long history in the water industry. Bob's father pioneered environmental issues regarding ground water and drinking water quality. He received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1953 for his thesis on removing radioactive strontium from water. He earned his doctorate in Environmental Engineering in less than 2 years, one of the shortest doctoral studies in the history of MIT. He taught civil, sanitary and environmental engineering at Michigan State University for 18 years before retiring to run Wolverine Engineers & Surveyors of Mason, Michigan, for 17 years. His reputation throughout Michigan as a water quality expert was legendary. Bob worked for his father's company for 12 years learning the water business, which dealt primarily with municipalities, including water quality and sanitary sewer issues. After apprenticing with his father, Bob moved on to the bottled water business. He established greater Michigan's biggest selling bottled water: Michigan Mineral – Premium Natural Water. He was introduced to Ionized Water in 1995 and has done more to promote Ionized Water than anyone else in the industry. Bob often lectures and offers seminars on his Seven Component Natural Health Protocol . Bob is a Certified Nutritional Consultant and a Certified Master Herbalist. He is also a 3rd Degree Black Belt and Certified Instructor of Songahm Taekwondo (American Taekwondo Association).
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